INVENTORY

With the country's largest inventory of light gauge stainless steel, Brown Metals can fill your order to your exact specifications in a week or less. From just a few pounds to thousands of pounds, we can get you the material you need right on time and just the way you need it. Let Brown Metals take care of your stainless steel needs with our incredible selection of light gauge stainless steel.

 

 

 

CUSTOM SHEET

Sometimes, coil just doesn't cut it and you need sheet. At Brown Metals, we do everything to YOUR desired needs. 24" x 120"? Only if that's what you really want. Do you really need 5" x 14.280"? Sure, we can do that or any other dimensions you prefer. Don't settle for "standard sheet" when you really need custom sheet. And by the way, we make it more cost effective by doing it your way!

 

 

 

PACKAGING

Custom sizes also need custom packaging. We package our products to your specifications to ensure safe delivery to your facility. Custom box or skid sizes are standard at Brown Metals. We package the way you want at no extra cost. This is just a way we contribute to a lower overall cost in your production.

 

 

 

 

WIDE COIL

At Brown Metals, we bring most of our inventory in at 36" wide. Some light gauges are only available at 24". Please inquire with us regarding your precise needs. Brown Metals provides wide coil for your most difficult applications. Whether you are in the stencil industry,making bellows or just have an application that needs wide, flat stock, Brown Metals can supply exactly what you need. Don't settle for "commercial quality" when Brown Metals can deliver the best quality in the country at the most competitive price.

SLITTING

You need it how narrow? You need an extremely tight tolerance? Why have you not contacted us sooner? Brown Metals is the industry leader in light gauge slit coil. No company has more experienced slitter operators than Brown Metals. Extreme tight tolerances are our specialty. Do you need +/- 001” on your width? Well, it’s more than likely we can meet your needs. Give us a call or send us an email with your next inquiry.

 

 

Brown Metals Company: Custom Quality You Can Depend On!

Alloy:     Select an Alloy to view detailed Technical Information

Technical Information for 321

Alloy
UNS Number
SAE Number
  321
  S32100
  30321


GENERAL PROPERTIES

Type 321 is a stabilized stainless steel which offers as its main advantage an excellent resistance to intergranular corrosion following exposure to temperatures in the chromium carbide precipitation range from 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C). Type 321 is stabilized against chromium carbide formation by the addition of titanium.

While Type 321 continues to be employed for prolonged service in th4e 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C) temperature range, Type 304L has supplanted this stabilized grade for applications involving only welding or short time heating.

Type 321 stainless steel s also advantageous for high temperature service because of its good mechanical properties. Type 321 stainless steel offers higher creep and stress rupture properties than Type 304 and, particularly, Type 304L which might also be considered for exposures where sensitization and intergranular corrosion are concerns. This results in higher elevated temperature allowable stresses for this stabilized alloy for ASME Boiler and pressure Vessel Code applications. The Type 321 alloy has a maximum use temperature of 1500°F (816° C) for code applications like Type 304, whereas Type 304L is limited to 800° F (426° C).



RESISTANCE TO CORROSION

General Corrosion The Type 321 alloy offers similar resistance to general, overall corrosion as the unstabilized chromium nickel Type 304. Heating for long periods of time in the chromium carbide precipitation range may affect the general resistance of Type 321 in corrosive media.

Intergranular Corrosion
Type 321 has been developed for applications where the unstabilized chromium-nickel steels, such as Type 304 would be susceptible to intergranular corrosion.

When the unstabilized chromium-nickel steels are held in or slowly cooled through the range of 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C), chromium carbide is precipitated at the grain boundaries. In the presence of certain strongly corrosive media, these grain boundaries are preferentially attached, a general weakening of the metal results, and a complete disintegration may occur.

Organic media or weakly corrosive aqueous agents, mil and other dairy products, or atmospheric conditions rarely produce intergranular corrosion even when large amounts of precipitated carbides are present. When thin gauge material is welded the time in the temperature range of 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C) is so short that with most corroding media the unstabilized type material is generally satisfactory. The extent to which carbide precipitation may be harmful depends upon the length of time the alloy was exposed to 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C) and upon the corrosive environment. Even the longer heating times involved in welding heavy gauges are not harmful to the unstabilized “L” grade alloys where the carbon content is kept to low amounts of 0.03% or less.

In general, Type 321 is used for heavy welded equipment which is operated between 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C) or slowly cooled through this range. Experience gained in a wide range of service conditions has provided sufficient data to generally predict the possibility of intergranular attach in most applications. Please review the comments under the HEAT TREATMENT section.

Stress Corrosion Cracking
The Type 321 austenitic stainless steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halides similar to Type 304 stainless steel. This results because of their similarity in nickel content. Conditions which cause SCC are: (1) presence of halide ion (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) environmental temperatures in excess of about 120° F (49° C). Stresses may result from cold deformation during forming operations, or from thermal cycles encountered during welding operations. Stress levels may be reduced by annealing or stress-relieving heat treatments following cold deformation. Type 321 is a good choice for service in the stress-relieved condition in environments which might otherwise cause intergranular corrosion for unstabilized alloys.

Type 321 is particularly useful under conditions which cause polythionic acid stress corrosion of non-stabilized austenitic stainless steels such as Type 304. Exposure of non-stabilized austenitic stainless steel to temperatures in the sensitizing range will cause the precipitation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. On cooling to room temperature in a sulfide-containing environment, the sulfide (often hydrogen sulfide) reacts with moisture and oxygen to form polythionic acids which attach the sensitized grain boundaries. Under conditions of stress, intergranular cracks form. Polythionic acid SCC has occurred n oil refinery environments where sulfides are common. The stabilized Type 321 alloy offers a solution to polythionic acids SCC by resisting sensitization during elevated temperature service. For optimum resistance, these alloys should be used in the thermally stabilized condition if service related conditions may result in sensitization.

Pitting/Crevice Corrosion
The resistance of the stabilized Type 321 alloy to pitting and crevice corrosion in the presence of chloride ion is similar to that of Type 304 or Type 304L stainless steels because of similar chromium content. Generally, 100 ppm chloride in aqueous environments is considered to be the limit for both the unstabilized and the stabilized alloys, particularly if crevices are present. Higher levels of chloride ion might cause crevice corrosion and pitting. For more severe conditions of higher chloride level, lower pH and/or higher temperature, alloys with molybdenum, such as Type 316, should be considered. The stabilized Type 321 alloy passes the 100 hour, 5% neutral salt spray test (ASTM-B-117) with no rusting or staining of samples. However, exposure of these alloys to salt mists from the ocean would be expected to cause pitting and crevice corrosion accompanied by severe discoloration. The Type 321 alloy is not recommended for exposure to marine environments.



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Melting Point
Density
Specific Gravity
Modulus of Elasticity
in Tension
  2550-2635° F
1398-1446° C
  .286 lb/in³
7.92 g/cm³
  7.92
  28 X 106 psi
193 Gpa


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
Temper
Tensile Strength
Minimum
(psi)
Yield Strength
Minimum 0.2% offset
(psi)
% Elongation
in 2" Minimum
Notes
321
Annealed
75,000
30,000
40 %
-
All values specified are approximate minimums unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from the applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
N
Other
321
.08
2.00
.045
.030
.75
17.00-19.00
9.00-12.00
.75
.75
.10
Ti=5x(C+N) min to .70 max
All values are maximum values unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


WELDING

Austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the high-alloy steels and can be welded by all fusion and resistance welding processes.

Two important considerations in producing weld joints in the austenitic stainless steels are: (1) preservation of corrosion resistance and (2) avoidance of cracking.

It is important to maintain the level of stabilizing element present in Type 321 during welding. Type 321 is more prone to loss of titanium. Care needs to be exercised to avoid pickup of carbon from oils and other sources and nitrogen from air. Weld practices which include attention to cleanliness and good inert gas shielding are recommended for these stabilized grades as well as other non-stabilized austenitic alloys.

Weld metal with a fully austenitic structure is more susceptible to cracking during the welding operation. For this reason, Type 321 is designed to resolidify with a small amount of ferrite to minimize cracking susceptibility. Columbium stabilized stainless steels are more prone to hot cracking than titanium stabilized stainless steels.

Matching filler metals are available for welding Type 321 stabilized stainless steel. Stabilized alloys may be joined to other stainless steels or carbon steels.



HEAT TREATMENT

The annealing temperature range for Type 321 is 1800 to 2000° F (928 to 1093° C). While the primary purpose of annealing is to obtain softness and high ductility, this steel may also be stress relief annealed within the carbide precipitation range 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C), without any danger of subsequent intergranular corrosion. Relieving strains be annealing for only a few hours in the 800 to 1500°F (427 to 816° C) range will not cause any noticeable lowering in the general corrosion resistance, although prolonged heating within this range does tend to lower the general corrosion resistance to some extent. As emphasized, however, annealing in the 800 to 1500° F (427 to 816° C) temperature range does not result in a susceptibility to intergranular attack.

For maximum ductility, the higher annealing range of 1800 to 2000° F (928 to 1093° C) is recommended.

When fabrication chromium-nickel stainless steel into equipment requiring the maximum protection against carbide precipitation obtainable through use of a stabilized grade, it is essential to recognize that there is a difference between the stabilizing ability of columbium and titanium. For these reasons the degree of stabilization and of resulting protection may be less pronounced when Type 321 is employed.

When maximum corrosion resistance is called for, it may be necessary with Type 321 to employ a corrective remedy which is known as a stabilizing anneal. It consists of heating to 1550 to 1650° F (843 to 899° C) for up to 5 hours depending on thickness. This range is above that within which chromium carbides are formed and is sufficiently high to cause dissociation and solution of any that may have been previously developed. Furthermore, it is the temperature at which titanium combines with carbon to form harmless titanium carbides. The result is that the chromium is restored to solid solution and carbon is forced into combination with titanium as harmless carbides.

When heat treatments are done in an oxidizing atmosphere the oxide should be removed after annealing in a descaling solution such as a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. These acids should be thoroughly rinsed off the surface after cleaning.

This alloy cannot be hardened by heat treatment.



Alloy:     Select an Alloy to view detailed Technical Information

Technical Information for 316L

Alloy
UNS Number
SAE Number
  316L
  S31603
  30316L


GENERAL PROPERTIES

Types 316 and 316L are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium nickel austenitic stainless steel such as Type 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperature. Types 316 and 316L generally contain 2 to 3% molybdenum for improved corrosion resistance.

In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, Types 316 and 316L alloys also provide the excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.



RESISTANCE TO CORROSION

General Corrosion
Types 316 and 316L are more resistant to atmospheric and other mild types of corrosion than the 18-8 stainless steels. In general, media that do not corrode 18-8 stainless steels will not attack these molybdenum-containing grades. One known exception is highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid to which the molybdenum-bearing stainless steels are less resistant.

Type 316 is considerably more resistant than any of the other chromium-nickel types to solutions of sulfuric acid. At temperature as high as 120° F (49° C), Type 316 is resistant to concentrations of this acid up to 5 percent. At temperatures under 100° F (38° C), this type has excellent resistance to higher concentrations. Service tests are usually desirable as operating conditions and acid contaminants may significantly affect corrosion rate. Where condensation of sulfur-bearing gases occurs, these alloys are much more resistant than other types of stainless steels. In such applications, however, the acid concentration has marked influence on the rate of attack and should be carefully determined.

The molybdenum-bearing Type 316 stainless steel also provides resistance to a wide variety of other environments. This alloy offers excellent resistance to boiling 20% phosphoric acid. It is widely used in handling hot organic and fatty acids. This is a factor in the manufacture and handling of certain food and pharmaceutical products where the molybdenum-containing stainless steels are often required in order to minimize metallic contamination.

Generally, the Type 316 grade can be considered to perform equally well for a given environment. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. In such media, Type 316L is preferred over Type 316 for the welded condition since low carbon levels enhance resistance to intergranular corrosion.

Pitting/Crevice Corrosion
Resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting and/or crevice corrosion in the presence of chloride or halide ions is enhanced by higher chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and nitrogen (N) content. A relative measure of pitting resistance is given by the PREN (Pitting Resistance Equivalent, including Nitrogen) calculation, where PREN = Cr+3.3Mo+16N. The PREN of Type 316 and 316L (24.2) is better than that of Type 304 (PREN=19.0), reflecting the better pitting resistance which Type 316 (or 316L) offers due to its Mo content.

Type 304 stainless steel is considered to resist pitting and crevice corrosion in waters containing up to about 100 ppm chloride. The Mo-bearing Type 316 alloy on the other hand, will handle waters with up to about 2000 ppm chloride. Although this alloy has been used with mixed success in seawater (19,000 ppm chloride) it is not recommended for such use. The Type 316 alloy is considered to be adequate for some marine environment applications such as boat rails and hardware, and facades of buildings near the ocean which are exposed to salt spray. Type 316 stainless steel performs without evidence of corrosion in the 100-hou, 5% salt spray (ASTM-B-117) test.

Intergranular Corrosion
Type 316 is susceptible to precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries when exposed to temperatures in the 800° F to 1500° F (427° C to 816° C) range. This “sensitized” steel is subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments.

For applications where heavy cross sections cannon be annealed after welding or where low temperature stress relieving treatments are desired, the low carbon Type 316L is available to avoid the hazard of intergranular corrosion. This provides resistance to intergranular attack with any thickness in the as-welded condition or with short periods of exposure in the 800-1500° F (427-826° C) temperature range. Where vessels require stress relieving treatment, short treatments falling within these limits can be employed without affecting the normal excellent corrosion resistance of the metal. Accelerated cooling from higher temperatures for the “L” grade is not needed when very heavy or bulky section have been annealed.

Type 316L posses the same desirable corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as the corresponding higher carbon Type 316, and offers an additional advantage in highly corrosive applications where intergranular corrosion is a hazard. Although the short duration heating encountered during welding or stress relieving does not produce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion, it should be noted that continuous or prolonged exposure at 800-1500° F (427-816° C) can be harmful from this standpoint with Type 316L. Also, stress relieving between 100-1500° F (593-816° C) may cause some slight Embrittlement of this type.

Stress Corrosion Cracking
Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halide environments. Although the Type 316 alloy is somewhat more resistant to SCC than the 18 Cr-8 Ni alloys because of the molybdenum content, they still are quite susceptible. Conditions which produce SCC are: (1) presence of halide ion (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120° F (49° C).

Stresses result from cold deformation or thermal cycles during welding. Annealing or stress relieving heat treatments may be effective in reducing stresses, thereby reducing sensitivity to halide SCC. Although the low carbon “L” grade offers no advantage as regards to SCC resistance, it is a better choice for service in the stress relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion.



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Melting Point
Density
Specific Gravity
Modulus of Elasticity
in Tension
  2540-2630° F
1390-1440° C
  .29 lb/in³
8.027 g/cm³
  8.03
  29 X 106 psi
200 Gpa


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
Temper
Tensile Strength
Minimum
(psi)
Yield Strength
Minimum 0.2% offset
(psi)
% Elongation
in 2" Minimum
Notes
316L
Annealed
70,000
25,000
40 %
-
All values specified are approximate minimums unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from the applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
N
Other
316L
.03
2.00
.040
.030
1.00
16.00-18.00
10.00-14.00
2.00-3.00
.75
-
-
All values are maximum values unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


WELDING

The austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the stainless steels. They are routinely joined by all fusion and resistance welding processes. Tow important considerations for weld joints in these alloys are: (1) avoidance of solidification cracking, and (2) preservation of corrosion resistance of the weld and heat-affected zones.

Fully austenitic weld deposits are more susceptible to cracking during welding. For this reason Types 316 and 316L "matching” filler metals are formulated to solidify with a small amount of ferrite in the microstructure to minimize cracking susceptibility.

For weldments to be used in the as-welded condition in corrosive environments, it is advisable to utilize the low carbon Type 316 base metal and filler metals. The higher the carbon level of the material being welded, the greater the likelihood the welding thermal cycles will allow chromium carbide precipitation (sensitization), which could result in intergranular corrosion. The low carbon “L” grade is designed to minimize or avoid sensitization.



HEAT TREATMENT

These austenitic stainless steels are provided in the mill annealed condition ready for use. Heat treatment may be necessary during or after fabrication to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides resulting from thermal exposures. For the Type 316 alloy the solution anneal is accomplished by heating in the 1900 to 2150° F (1040 to 1175° C) temperature range followed by air cooling or a water quench, depending on section thickness. Cooling should be sufficiently rapid through the 1500-800° F (816-427° C) range to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides and provide optimum corrosion resistance. In every case, the metal should be cooled from the annealing temperature to black heat in less than three minutes.

Type 316 cannot be hardened by heat treatment.



Alloy:     Select an Alloy to view detailed Technical Information

Technical Information for 316

Alloy
UNS Number
SAE Number
  316
  S31600
  30316


GENERAL PROPERTIES

Types 316 and 316L are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steel which are more resistant to general corrosion and pitting/crevice corrosion than the conventional chromium nickel austenitic stainless steel such as Type 304. These alloys also offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperature. Types 316 and 316L generally contain 2 to 3% molybdenum for improved corrosion resistance.

In addition to excellent corrosion resistance and strength properties, Types 316 and 316L alloys also provide the excellent fabricability and formability which are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.



RESISTANCE TO CORROSION

General Corrosion
Types 316 and 316L are more resistant to atmospheric and other mild types of corrosion than the 18-8 stainless steels. In general, media that do not corrode 18-8 stainless steels will not attack these molybdenum-containing grades. One known exception is highly oxidizing acids such as nitric acid to which the molybdenum-bearing stainless steels are less resistant.

Type 316 is considerably more resistant than any of the other chromium-nickel types to solutions of sulfuric acid. At temperature as high as 120° F (49° C), Type 316 is resistant to concentrations of this acid up to 5 percent. At temperatures under 100° F (38° C), this type has excellent resistance to higher concentrations. Service tests are usually desirable as operating conditions and acid contaminants may significantly affect corrosion rate. Where condensation of sulfur-bearing gases occurs, these alloys are much more resistant than other types of stainless steels. In such applications, however, the acid concentration has marked influence on the rate of attack and should be carefully determined.

The molybdenum-bearing Type 316 stainless steel also provides resistance to a wide variety of other environments. This alloy offers excellent resistance to boiling 20% phosphoric acid. It is widely used in handling hot organic and fatty acids. This is a factor in the manufacture and handling of certain food and pharmaceutical products where the molybdenum-containing stainless steels are often required in order to minimize metallic contamination.

Generally, the Type 316 grade can be considered to perform equally well for a given environment. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. In such media, Type 316L is preferred over Type 316 for the welded condition since low carbon levels enhance resistance to intergranular corrosion.

Pitting/Crevice Corrosion
Resistance of austenitic stainless steels to pitting and/or crevice corrosion in the presence of chloride or halide ions is enhanced by higher chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and nitrogen (N) content. A relative measure of pitting resistance is given by the PREN (Pitting Resistance Equivalent, including Nitrogen) calculation, where PREN = Cr+3.3Mo+16N. The PREN of Type 316 and 316L (24.2) is better than that of Type 304 (PREN=19.0), reflecting the better pitting resistance which Type 316 (or 316L) offers due to its Mo content.

Type 304 stainless steel is considered to resist pitting and crevice corrosion in waters containing up to about 100 ppm chloride. The Mo-bearing Type 316 alloy on the other hand, will handle waters with up to about 2000 ppm chloride. Although this alloy has been used with mixed success in seawater (19,000 ppm chloride) it is not recommended for such use. The Type 316 alloy is considered to be adequate for some marine environment applications such as boat rails and hardware, and facades of buildings near the ocean which are exposed to salt spray. Type 316 stainless steel performs without evidence of corrosion in the 100-hou, 5% salt spray (ASTM-B-117) test.

Intergranular Corrosion
Type 316 is susceptible to precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries when exposed to temperatures in the 800° F to 1500° F (427° C to 816° C) range. This “sensitized” steel is subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments.

For applications where heavy cross sections cannon be annealed after welding or where low temperature stress relieving treatments are desired, the low carbon Type 316L is available to avoid the hazard of intergranular corrosion. This provides resistance to intergranular attack with any thickness in the as-welded condition or with short periods of exposure in the 800-1500° F (427-826° C) temperature range. Where vessels require stress relieving treatment, short treatments falling within these limits can be employed without affecting the normal excellent corrosion resistance of the metal. Accelerated cooling from higher temperatures for the “L” grade is not needed when very heavy or bulky section have been annealed.

Type 316L posses the same desirable corrosion resistance and mechanical properties as the corresponding higher carbon Type 316, and offers an additional advantage in highly corrosive applications where intergranular corrosion is a hazard. Although the short duration heating encountered during welding or stress relieving does not produce susceptibility to intergranular corrosion, it should be noted that continuous or prolonged exposure at 800-1500° F (427-816° C) can be harmful from this standpoint with Type 316L. Also, stress relieving between 100-1500° F (593-816° C) may cause some slight Embrittlement of this type.

Stress Corrosion Cracking
Austenitic stainless steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in halide environments. Although the Type 316 alloy is somewhat more resistant to SCC than the 18 Cr-8 Ni alloys because of the molybdenum content, they still are quite susceptible. Conditions which produce SCC are: (1) presence of halide ion (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120° F (49° C).

Stresses result from cold deformation or thermal cycles during welding. Annealing or stress relieving heat treatments may be effective in reducing stresses, thereby reducing sensitivity to halide SCC. Although the low carbon “L” grade offers no advantage as regards to SCC resistance, it is a better choice for service in the stress relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion.



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Melting Point
Density
Specific Gravity
Modulus of Elasticity
in Tension
  2540-2630° F
1390-1440° C
  .29 lb/in³
8.027 g/cm³
  8.03
  29 X 106 psi
200 Gpa


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
Temper
Tensile Strength
Minimum
(psi)
Yield Strength
Minimum 0.2% offset
(psi)
% Elongation
in 2" Minimum
Notes
316
Annealed
75,000
30,000
40 %
-
All values specified are approximate minimums unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from the applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
N
Other
316
.08
2.00
.040
.030
1.00
16.00-18.00
10.00-14.00
2.00-3.00
.75
-
-
All values are maximum values unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


WELDING

The austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the stainless steels. They are routinely joined by all fusion and resistance welding processes. Tow important considerations for weld joints in these alloys are: (1) avoidance of solidification cracking, and (2) preservation of corrosion resistance of the weld and heat-affected zones.

Fully austenitic weld deposits are more susceptible to cracking during welding. For this reason Types 316 and 316L "matching” filler metals are formulated to solidify with a small amount of ferrite in the microstructure to minimize cracking susceptibility.

For weldments to be used in the as-welded condition in corrosive environments, it is advisable to utilize the low carbon Type 316 base metal and filler metals. The higher the carbon level of the material being welded, the greater the likelihood the welding thermal cycles will allow chromium carbide precipitation (sensitization), which could result in intergranular corrosion. The low carbon “L” grade is designed to minimize or avoid sensitization.



HEAT TREATMENT

These austenitic stainless steels are provided in the mill annealed condition ready for use. Heat treatment may be necessary during or after fabrication to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides resulting from thermal exposures. For the Type 316 alloy the solution anneal is accomplished by heating in the 1900 to 2150° F (1040 to 1175° C) temperature range followed by air cooling or a water quench, depending on section thickness. Cooling should be sufficiently rapid through the 1500-800° F (816-427° C) range to avoid reprecipitation of chromium carbides and provide optimum corrosion resistance. In every case, the metal should be cooled from the annealing temperature to black heat in less than three minutes.

Type 316 cannot be hardened by heat treatment.



Alloy:     Select an Alloy to view detailed Technical Information

Technical Information for 305

Alloy
UNS Number
SAE Number
  305
  S30500
  30305


GENERAL PROPERTIES

Types 302, 304, 304L, and 305 stainless steels are variations of the 18 percent chromium – 8 percent nickel austenitic alloy, the most familiar and most frequently used alloy in the stainless steel family. These alloys may be considered for a wide variety of applications where one or more of the following properties are important:
  1. Resistance to corrosion
  2. Prevention of product contamination
  3. Resistance to oxidation
  4. East of fabrication
  5. Excellent formability
  6. Beauty of appearance
  7. Ease of cleaning
  8. High strength with low weight
  9. Good strength and toughness at cryogenic temperatures
  10. Ready availability of a wide range of product forms
Each alloy represents an excellent combination of corrosion resistance and fabricability. This combination of properties is the reason for the extensive use of these alloys which represent nearly one half of the total U.S. stainless steel production. Type 304 represents the largest volume followed by Type 304L. Types 302 and 305 are used in smaller quantities. These alloys are covered by a variety of construction or use of equipment manufactured from these alloys for specific conditions. Food and beverage, sanitary, cryogenic, and pressure-containing applications are examples. Past users of Type 302 are generally now using Type 304 since AOD technology has made lower carbon levels more easily attainable and economical. There are instances, such as in temper rolled products, when Type 302 is preferred over Type 304since the higher carbon permits meeting of yield and tensile strength requirements while maintaining a higher level of ductility (elongation) versus that of the lower carbon Type 304. Type 304L is used for welded products which might be exposed to conditions which could cause intergranular corrosion in service. Type 305 is used for applications requiring a low rate of work hardening during severe cold forming operations such as deep drawing.


RESISTANCE TO CORROSION

General Corrosion
The Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 austenitic stainless steels provide useful resistance to corrosion on a wide range of moderately oxidizing to moderately reducing environments. The alloys are used widely in equipment and utensils for processing and handling of food, beverages and dairy products. Heat exchangers, piping, tanks and other process equipment in contact with fresh water also utilize these alloys. Building facades and other architectural and structural applications exposed to non-marine atmospheres also heavily utilize the 18-8 alloys. In addition, a large variety of applications involve household and industrial chemicals. The 18 to 19 percent of chromium which these alloys contain provides resistance to oxidizing environments such as dilute nitric acid. These alloys are also resistant to moderately aggressive organic acids such as acetic, and reducing acids such as phosphoric. The 9 to 11 percent of nickel contained by these 18-8 alloys assists in providing resistance to moderately reducing environments. The more highly reducing environments such as boiling dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are shown to be too aggressive for these materials. Boiling 50 percent caustic is likewise too aggressive.

In some cases, the low carbon Type 304L alloy may show a lower corrosion rate than the higher carbon Type 304 alloy. The data for formic acid, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide illustrate this. Otherwise, the Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys may be considered to perform equally in most corrosive environments. A notable exception is in environments sufficiently corrosive to cause intergranular corrosion of welds and heat-affected zones on susceptible alloys. The Type 304L alloy is preferred for use in such media in the welded condition since the lower carbon level enhances resistance to intergranular corrosion.

Intergranular Corrosion
Exposure of the 18-8 austenitic stainless steels to temperatures in the 800°F to 1500°F (427° to 816°C) range may cause precipitation of chromium carbides in grain boundaries. Such steels are “sensitized” and subject to intergranular corrosion when exposed to aggressive environments. The carbon content of Types 302, 304 and 305 may allow sensitization to occur from thermal conditions experienced by autogenous welds are heat-affected zones of welds. For this reason, the low carbon Type 304L alloy is preferred for applications in which the material is put into service in the as-welded condition. Low carbon content extends the time necessary to precipitate a harmful level of chromium carbides, but does not eliminate the precipitation reaction for material held for long times in the precipitation temperature range.

Stress Corrosion Cracking
The Type 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys are the most susceptible of the austenitic stainless steels to stress corrosion cracking in halides because of their relatively low nickel content. Conditions which cause stress corrosion cracking are: (1) presence of halide ions (generally chloride), (2) residual tensile stresses, and (3) temperatures in excess of about 120°F (49°C). Stresses may result from cold deformation of the alloy during forming, or by roller expanding tubes into tubesheets, or by welding operations which produce stresses from the thermal cycles used. Stress levels may be reduced by annealing or stress relieving heat treatments following deformation, thereby reducing sensitivity to halide stress corrosion cracking. The low carbon Type 304L material is the better choice for service in the stress relieved condition in environments which might cause intergranular corrosion.



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Melting Point
Density
Specific Gravity
Modulus of Elasticity
in Tension
  2550-2590° F
1399-1421° C
  .285 lb/in³
7.90 g/cm³
  7.90
  29 X 106 psi
200 Gpa


MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
Temper
Tensile Strength
Minimum
(psi)
Yield Strength
Minimum 0.2% offset
(psi)
% Elongation
in 2" Minimum
Notes
305
Annealed
70,000
25,000
40 %
-
All values specified are approximate minimums unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from the applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Alloy
C
Mn
P
S
Si
Cr
Ni
Mo
Cu
N
Other
305
.12
2.00
.045
.030
1.00
17.00-19.00
10.50-13.00
.75
.75
-
-
All values are maximum values unless otherwise specified. Values are derived from applicable AMS and ASTM specifications.


WELDING

The austenitic stainless steels are considered to be the most weldable of the high-alloy steels and can be welded by all fusion and resistance welding processes. The Types 302, 304, 304L and 305 alloys are typical of the austenitic stainless steels.

Two important considerations in producing weld joints in the austenitic stainless steels are: (1) preservation of corrosion resistance, and (2) avoidance of cracking.

A temperature gradient is produced in the material being welded which ranges from above the melting temperature in the molten pool to ambient temperature at some distance from the weld. The higher the carbon level of the material being welded, the greater the likelihood that the welding thermal cycle will result in the chromium carbide precipitation which is detrimental to corrosion resistance. To provide material at the best level of corrosion resistance, low carbon material (Type 304L) should be used for material put in service in the welded condition. Alternately, full annealing dissolves the chromium carbide and restores a high level of corrosion resistance to the standard carbon content materials.

Weld metal with a fully austenitic structure is more susceptible to cracking during the welding operation. For this reason, Types 302, 304, and 304L alloys are designed to resolidify with a small amount of ferrite to minimize cracking susceptibility. Type 305, however, contains virtually no ferrite on solidification and is more sensitive to hot cracking upon welding than the other alloys.



HEAT TREATMENT

The austenitic stainless steels are heat treated to remove the effects of cold forming or to dissolve precipitated chromium carbides. The surest heat treatment to accomplish both requirements is the solution anneal which is conducted in the 1850°F to 2050°F range (1010°C to °C). Cooling from the anneal temperature should be at sufficiently high rates through 1500-800°F (816°C – 427°C) to avoid precipitation of chromium carbides.

These materials cannot be hardened by heat treatment.



BLOG

Brown Metals Company and Conflict Minerals

People on our planet have faced conflict for a very long time and these conflicts come in a wide variety. Conflicts exist between countries, regions and people. A large percentage of the human population is totally unaware of the majority of conflicts...

Read more...

Cut-to-length Shearing Is Just One Service We Offer Our Customers

With over one million pounds of inventory on hand at any given time, our customers obviously have a lot to choose from. Being able to offer our customers smaller quantities of materials is a service we take pride in. We realize each and every customer...

Read more...

Brown Metals Company Is Environmentally Friendly

Keeping our environment safe is now a concern that many businesses and industries face on a global scale. The old days of large industrial businesses dumping nasty contaminants into the earth needs to stop and here at Brown Metals Company...

Read more...